Dr. Mark S. Cantieri • Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
From scratching your back to playing sports, to working on the loading dock or typing, , you use your shoulder in most activities. Corrective Care treats shoulder pain of all kinds.
What most people call the shoulder is really several bones and joints - your upper arm bone (humerus), your shoulder blade (scapula), and your collarbone (clavicle) - that combine with tendons and muscles to allow a wide range of motion in the arm.
Causes of Shoulder Pain
Most shoulder pain results from four things:
Tendon inflammation (bursitis or tendinitis) or tendon tear
Fracture (broken bone)
Other causes of shoulder pain are tumors, infection, and nerve-related problems, but these are less common
Bursae are small, fluid-filled sacs that are located in joints throughout the body, including the shoulder. They act as cushions between bones and the overlying soft tissues, and help reduce friction between the gliding muscles and the bone.
Sometimes, excessive use of the shoulder leads to inflammation and swelling of the bursa between the rotator cuff and part of the shoulder blade known as the acromion. The result is a condition known as subacromial bursitis.
Bursitis often occurs in association with rotator cuff tendinitis, when the muscles and tissues in the shoulder become inflamed and painful. When this happens, simple daily activities such as combing your hair or getting dressed may become painful and difficult.
Overuse of the shoulder muscles may lead to problems with instability or impingement of the soft tissue or bony structures in your shoulder, resulting in pain. The pain may occur when you move your shoulder, or all of the time. The pain may be temporary, or it may continue and increase.
A tendon is a cord that connects muscle to bone. Most tendinitis is a result of inflammation in the tendon. Generally, tendinitis is one of two types:
Overuse of the shoulder muscles for overhead activities during work or sport can lead to acute tendinitis.
Degenerative diseases like arthritis or repetitive wear and tear due to age can lead to chronic tendinitis.
The most commonly affected tendons in the shoulder are the four rotator cuff tendons and one of the biceps tendons. The rotator cuff is made up of four small muscles and their tendons that cover the head of your upper arm bone and keep it in the shoulder socket.
Shoulder Tendon Tears
Splitting and tearing of tendons may result from acute injury or degenerative changes in the tendons due to advancing age, long-term overuse and wear and tear, or a sudden injury. These tears may be partial, or may completely separate the tendon from its attachment to bone. In most cases of complete tears, the tendon is pulled away from its attachment to the bone. Rotator cuff and biceps tendon injuries are among the most common of these injuries.
Shoulder impingement occurs when the top of the shoulder blade (acromion) puts pressure on the underlying soft tissues when the arm is lifted away from the body. As the arm is lifted, the acromion rubs, or "impinges" on, the rotator cuff tendons and bursa. This can lead to bursitis and tendinitis, causing pain and limiting movement.
Shoulder instability occurs when the head of the upper arm bone is forced out of the shoulder socket. This can happen as a result of a sudden injury or from overuse.
Shoulder dislocations can be partial, with the ball of the upper arm coming just partially out of the socket. This is called a subluxation. A complete dislocation means the ball comes all the way out of the socket.
Once the ligaments, tendons, and muscles around the shoulder become loose or torn, dislocations can occur repeatedly. Recurring dislocations, which may be partial or complete, cause pain and unsteadiness when you raise your arm or move it away from your body. Repeated episodes of subluxations or dislocations lead to an increased risk of developing arthritis in the joint.
Shoulder pain can also result from arthritis. There are many types of arthritis. The most common type of arthritis in the shoulder is osteoarthritis, also known as "wear and tear" arthritis. Symptoms such as swelling, pain, and stiffness, typically begin during middle age. Osteoarthritis develops slowly and the pain it causes worsens over time.
Osteoarthritis, may be related to sports or work injuries or chronic wear and tear. Other types of arthritis can be related to rotator cuff tears, infection, or an inflammation of the joint lining.
People will often avoid moving their shoulder to lessen arthritis pain. However, this can lead to a tightening or stiffening of the soft tissue parts of the joint, resulting in a painful restriction of motion.
Fractures are broken bones. Shoulder fractures commonly involve the clavicle (collarbone), humerus (upper arm bone), and scapula (shoulder blade).
Shoulder fractures in older patients are often the result of a fall from standing height. In younger patients, shoulder fractures are often from an injury, such as a car accident or sports injury.
Fractures often cause severe pain, swelling, and bruising about the shoulder.
In the case of an acute injury causing intense pain, seek medical care as soon as possible. If the pain is less severe, it may be safe to rest a few days to see if time will resolve the problem.
Your doctor will conduct a thorough evaluation in order to determine the cause of your shoulder pain and provide you with treatment options. Medical diagnosis will help to ascertain the source of the pain and provide effective treatment.